Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 9th Euro-Global Summit & Expo on Food & Beverages Cologne, Germany.

Day 1 :

Keynote Forum

El-Sayed M. Abdel-Aal

Senior Research Scientist, Guelph Research and Development Centre, Canada

Keynote: Impact of processing on barley -glucan and its role in human health

Time : 10:05-10:35

OMICS International Euro Food-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker El-Sayed M. Abdel-Aal photo
Biography:

Elsayed Abdelaal is a Senior Research Scientist with Guelph Research and Development Centre at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada where he specialized in grain-based functional foods and natural health products. His about 200 publications and presentations encompass chemistry, functionality, nutritional and antioxidant properties of a diverse array of primitive, modern and newly-developed grains. Currently he is the chair of the Bioactive Compounds Technical Committee and vice chair for the Nutrition Division at the American Association of Cereal Chemists International. He has been Associate Faculty member at the University of Guelph and Adjunct Professor at the University of Toronto, and Editorial Board member for several scientific Journals.

Abstract:

β-Glucan is a soluble dietary fiber found in barley grains at a wide concentration range (4-11%) subject to barley type. It is also present in other cereal grains such as oats and wheat. This grain constituent has received considerable interest from academia, industry and regulators due to its positive functions in human health including lowering blood cholesterol and glucose. In fact, large numbers of clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown the beneficial health effects of barley β-glucan which leads to the endorsement of a health claim for the relationship between barley β-glucan and reduced risk of heart disease in several countries including USA, Canada and UK. This opens the door for food industry and researchers to come up with innovative barley foods that contain the physiological dose of β-glucan (3g/day). In addition, it is generally accepted that the efficacy of β-glucan in the diet depends on its physiochemical characteristics in foods specifically viscosity which is related to the amount and molecular weight of -glucan solubilized in the human body. Thus the functionality of -glucan in humans is not only related to the amount of -glucan in foods but also linked to its molecular properties. Studies have shown that different processing methods affect physiochemical characteristics of β-glucan in barley to various extents. Research at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Guelph Research and Development Centre has led to the development of several barley functional foods such as partially pearled or whole grain barley as rice substitute, barley pasta and -glucan enriched bread. These functional foods will be discussed in details in terms of the impact of processing on their nutritional properties and role in human health.

Keynote Forum

Lawrence D. Goodridge

McGill University, Canada

Keynote: Using whole genome analysis to develop novel approaches to controlling Salmonella

Time : 10:35-11:05

OMICS International Euro Food-2016 International Conference Keynote Speaker Lawrence D. Goodridge photo
Biography:

Lawrence D. Goodridge is a native of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Guelph (pronounced Gwelf) in Guelph, Ontario, Canada with a major emphasis in Food Microbiology and Food Safety in 2002. Currently, he is the Ian and Jayne Munro Chair in Food Safety at McGill University.His primary research interest is the use of bacteriophages to study and solve problems associated with the production of food. He has published more than 55peer reviewed publications and book chapters on topics related to food safety.

Abstract:

Salmonella is an important cause of global foodborne illness. The World Health Organization estimates that, each year,rnapproximately 600 million people become sick, and 420,000 die from foodborne illnesses. Of these, Salmonella accountsrnfor 93 million illnesses and 150,000 deaths. While foods such as poultry have long been recognized as causes of Salmonella food poisoning, fresh fruits and vegetables have recently emerged as important sources of Salmonella. Thus, there is a needrnto develop better methods to reduce the presence of Salmonella in foods. Ideally these methods should also be applicable torncontrol of other foodborne pathogens. Whole genomic sequence analysis of Salmonella isolated from diverse sources revealedrna large number of prophages residing within the chromosome. Many of these prophages can be induced, resulting in lysis ofrntheir bacterial host. We were therefore interested in evaluationg induction of prophages and subsequent bacterial death couldrnbe employed as a novel strategy to control Salmonella in foods. Growth of Salmonella from diverse serovars exposed to a phagerninducer (0 or 2 ug/ml mitomycin C) was monitored by OD600. Release of induced prophages from the host was confirmed byrnsubjecting the lysates to PCR to detect phage-specific integrases. Additionally, the ability of mitomycin C to induce prophagesrnin Salmonella Duesseldorf growing on fresh produce was evaluated by inoculating the stem scar of red greenhouse tomatoesrnor spinach leaves with 5x107 and 5x108 cells, respectively. After drying, mitomycin C (6 ug/mL) was sprayed onto eachrnsample, while control samples were sprayed with water. Following overnight incubation, the bacterial cells were recovered andrnplate counts were performed. Beginning at 3 hours after addition of mitomycin C, growth of Salmonella strains resulted in arnmarked decrease in OD600. PCR confirmed bacterial release of prophages in these lysates. For example, a three-log reductionrnin S. Duesseldorf (and E. coli O157:H7) was observed on tomatoes sprayed with mitomycin C compared to those sprayedrnwith water, while a one-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 was obtained on spinach.These findings serve as a proof of conceptrndemonstrating that prophage induction can efficiently control bacterial foodborne pathogens on fresh produce.

  • Symposium on “Bacteriophase-Based Biocontrol For Healthier Foods

Session Introduction

Alexander Sulakvelidze

Vice President, Intralytix Inc., USA

Title: Bacteriophage applications in food production and processing

Time : 11:20-11:45

Speaker
Biography:

Alexander Sulakvelidze is the Vice President of R&D and Chief Scientist of Intralytix. He is an internationally recognized expert in phage technology who was instrumental in securing the first ever FDA-approval for phage based food safety product in the World. Sulakvelidze has published extensively on the subject of phage therapy, including co-editing a major book about bacteriophages entitled “Bacteriophages: Biology and Applications”. He is the author of several issued and pending patents in the field of phage therapy and biocontrol. Sulakvelidze is currently serving as Editor-in-Chief of the scientific journal Bacteriophage, and as an ad hoc reviewer for several other journals and funding agencies.

Abstract:

Foodborne illnesses of microbial origin continue to be serious food safety problem worldwide. In addition to being of significant public health importance, the economic impact of foodborne bacterial infections is very significant. For example, in the USA alone, Salmonella foodborne illnesses result in ca. $2.4 billion in medical costs annually, and hospitalizations and deaths due to E. coli O157:H7 infections lead to an estimated $405 million in medical costs and lost productivity annually. Also, substantive costs to the food industry are incurred in the form of product loss and brand-damaging publicity associated with recalling products contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Thus, there are very strong public health and economic incentives to develop novel approaches for managing contamination of a broad range of foods by specific foodborne bacterial pathogens. Lytic bacteriophages provide one such approach. Lytic bacteriophages/phages (viruses that kill bacteria) are the oldest and most ubiquitous microorganisms on Earth. Because of their potent, highly specific antibacterial activity, phages may provide an all-natural, nontoxic, and effective means for significantly reducing or eliminating bacterial pathogens present in various foods. Several phage-based products have been recently introduced, including ListShield™ - the first ever phage based product (developed by Intralytix, Inc.) to have received FDA approval for direct food applications. These natural phage products, when properly applied, reduce significantly the levels of their bacterial hosts contaminating various foods without altering their flavors, aromas, or appearances. Bacteriophages represent an emerging “green” technology that can help improve food safety. The presentations will give the audience an overview of the bacteriophage technology and a current and novel perspective on the crucial technical, regulatory, and human safety issues of this emerging technology for improving food safety.

Speaker
Biography:

Lawrence Goodridge is a native of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Guelph (pronounced Gwelf) in Guelph, Ontario, Canada with a major emphasis in Food Microbiology and Food Safety in 2002. Currently, Dr. Goodridge is the Ian and Jayne Munro Chair in Food Safety at McGill University. Dr. Goodridge’s primary research interest is the use of bacteriophages to study and solve problems associated with the production of food. He has published more than 55 peer reviewed publications and book chapters on topics related to food safety.

Abstract:

Virulent bacteriophages represent a sepecific tool that may be used to reprogram the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of warm blooded animals to remove bacteria that cause disease. One potentail application of this apporach is the reduction of foodborne pathogens in the GIT of bovines prior to harvest for meat production. We evaluated a bacteriophage cocktail consisting of thirty seven phages, and capable of growth on multiple strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7, for redcution of E. coli O157 in live animals. A total of 14 Black Angus calves ranging from 4 to 6 months of age were orally inoculated with 108 CFU E. coli O157:H7 and subjected to phage treatment during two trials. The first trial evaluated ileal samples and the second trial evaluated fecal samples for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and phages. In the first trial, concentration of E. coli O157:H7 decreased (P = 0.0266, P = 0.0424) in the ileal samples at 8 and 12 hours. However, the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 increased back to the concentration of the control samples at 16 hours. In the second trial, shedding of E. coli O157:H7 decreased (P = 0.025) in the treated group at 24 hours. Similar to the ileal samples, an increase in the concentration of E. coli O157:H7 was observed at 36 hours in the fecal samples. Encapsulation of the phage cocktail may be required to provide protection for the cocktail through areas of the GIT with low pH, such as the abomasum and duodenum. Additionally, continual administration of the cocktail may prove to be successful in a sustained reduction or elimination of E. coli O157:H7 in the GIT of cattle.

Speaker
Biography:

Senecal received a BA in Biology from Assumption College; a MS in Biological Sciences from Long Island University; and a Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from the University of Rhode Island. He presently serves as the scientific technical advisor for the Food Protection and Inovative Packaging Team, at the Natick Soldier Research Development and Engineering Center. In his 28 years at Natick, he has been as a senior research food technologist with responsibilities for advancing military field ration quality, stability, performance, and food safety. Presently, he is the lead scientist for researching technologies for improving military food safety and detection. He is a member of the Department of Defense Veterinary Services Activity, Office of the Surgeon General Food Risk Evaluation Committee and Laboratory Working Group where he serves as a technical consultant for food sampling protocols and detection technologies.

Abstract:

The incidence of foodborne outbreaks involving fresh produce is of worldwide concern. The United States is deployed worldwide to places where lack food sanitation standards food safety enforcement could result in food-borne disease outbreaks. These outbreaks have potential harmful effects on troop health and readiness. Simultaneously, military commanders want to maximize the availability of freshly prepared meals, to improve the overall troop morale. Fruits and vegetables to support these meals are generally procured locally at the region of deployment. Fresh produce are commonly consumed uncooked and have been identified as primary causes of illnesses associated with outbreaks of foodborne disease. Therefore, strategies to eliminate food pathogens on fresh produce must be designed and validated for military and civilian use. An old anti-pathogen technology that has emerged as a novel method for improving produce safety is bacteriophages. Bacteriophages are naturally occurring predators of bacteria that can reduce the levels of their specifically-targeted pathogenic bacteria. The Army has worked with industry to develop a series of lytic bacteriophage cocktails specific against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Shigella. Studies were conducted to identify potential best approaches for eliminating these pathogens from broccoli, cantaloupe and strawberries. Bacteriophage cocktails, levulinic acid produce wash, and a combination of both treatments (BCPW) was compared to the Army standard of washing produce in 200 ppm free available chlorine. Our findings indicated that the BCPW treatment was a very effective method for treating produce contaminated with these pathogens even in the presence of elevated organic loads.

Joelle Woolston

Research Scientist, Intralytix Inc., USA

Title: Application of lytic bacteriophage for improving the safety of human and pet foods

Time : 12:35-13:00

Speaker
Biography:

Joelle Woolston is a research scientist and laboratory manager at Intralytix, where she provides hands-on research, directs and supervises laboratory staff, and assists in the regulatory approval process. Prior to joining Intralytix, she worked on metabolic transporters at the Childrens’ Hospital in Washington, D.C. and co-developed a patented phage-based vector system at the University of Maryland.

Abstract:

Bacteriophages, arguably the oldest and most ubiquitous organisms on Earth, are viruses that kill bacteria. They play a key role in maintaining the microbial balance in any ecosystem where bacteria exist. Bacteriophages are naturally part of the normal microflora of many foods, and the ‘phage biocontrol’ approach is based on the concept of using the right phage, in the right place, in the right concentration to eliminate or significantly reduce pathogenic bacteria. Interest in using bacteriophages to improve food safety has been gaining momentum recently, driven by both the continued occurrence of foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the desire of consumers for natural foods. Because of the specificity of bacteriophages, their application only affects the target bacteria (the pathogen) but will not affect the other naturally present and potentially beneficial microflora. Bacteriophage products that target Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and E. coli have been shown to reduce or completely eliminate the specific pathogen on a variety of foods, including meat, seafood, fruits and vegetables, dairy products and pet foods. Furthermore, none of the phage preparations affect the treated foods’ flavors, aromas, or appearances. In the US, the number of regulatory approvals for bacteriophage products has increased in recent years, with several having been cleared as GRAS and others receiving FCN and FAP approvals. This presentation will review the use of bacteriophage biocontrol as a food safety measure, in both human and pet foods, as well as discuss regulatory and safety issues concerning their use.

  • Worshop on Advanced Green Manufacture Technology for Processed Meats

Session Introduction

Zengqi Peng

Nanjing Agricultural University, China

Title: Advanced Green Manufacture Technology For Processed Meats

Time : 13:45-14:45

Speaker
Biography:

Zengqi Peng is the Professor of Nanjing Agricultural University, National Center of Meat Quality and Safety Control and also Meat Scientist at National Beef Cattle Industrial Technology System. His research interest is Meat Science. His research projects include National Natural Science Foundation; National Basic Research Program (973 Program); National High Technology Research and Development Program (863 Program); National Key Technologies Research and Development Program (2010-2012). He has received many research honors and awards such as National Science and Technology Progress Award; Science and Technology Contribution Award of Chinese Association of Animal Products Processing. He has published more than 20 papers in reputed journals in the research area of Green Manufacturing Technology for Processed Meats.

Abstract:

This report reviews the development of green chemistry and green manufacturing around the globe. The risks of hazardous chemicals like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), trans fatty acids (TFAs), nitrites/ nitrates, formaldehyde, and PM2.5 produced by traditional meat cooking methods which are usually heated at high temperature such as grilling, frying, smoking and boiling to human body and environment are discussed. In view of modern science and technology as well as the sustainable development of food industry, the concept of meat green manufacturing technology is defined, meat green manufacturing technology is a modern manufacturing pattern that employs the concepts and principles of green chemistry and green engineering, turning high-quality raw meat into healthy meat products by green formula design, green processing, green packaging, green transport and green sell so as to minimize the risks of hazardous chemicals to human body and the environment, through which both economic benefits and social benefits can be obtained and coordinated. By use of the meat green manufacturing technology, a series of healthy meat products has been developed at temperatures below 120oC-130oC, which are characterized by attractive color, pleasant flavor and favorable texture. In addition to that, the final content of hazardous chemicals such as PHAs, HAAs, TFAs, formaldehyde and PM2.5 are remarkably reduced. Finally, the opportunity and challenges facing meat industry are summarized.

  • Track 2:Food & Beverages Sector Track 4: Food and Beverages Processing Track 6: Food Adulteration Track 8: Implementation of Nanoparticles in Food and Beverages Track 10: Risk Communication and Public Health Track 12: Food and Public Health

Session Introduction

Richard G. Zytner

University of Guelph, Canada

Title: Potential for water reuse of high strength fruit and vegetable processor wastewater

Time : 14:45-15:10

Speaker
Biography:

Richard G. Zytner joined the School of Engineering, University of Guelph in 1991 after working in industry with Clayton Environmental Consultants. Since then he has taught both undergraduate and advanced graduate courses on water and wastewater treatment. His research interests have centred on soil remediation and wastewater treatment technologies. These projects have taken him several times to Germany on research leaves. Currently he is working on the fresh cut fruit and vegetable sector, with his research group looking at ways to treat both agri-food wash-water and wastewater, with the goal of reducing fresh water consumption. He has published and presented over 130 papers and is an Associate Editor with the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering.

Abstract:

Research was completed on the effectiveness of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) to treat high strength food processing wastewater. The primary goal was to investigate the ability to reduce BOD, TSS and nutrients to levels below municipal sewer discharge limits as food processors are levied surcharges when the wastewater is discharged to the municipal system, affecting their competitiveness. The ultimate goal of the project was to evaluate the potential of reusing the treated wastewater. The lab scale MBR reactor contained a flat sheet ultrafiltration membrane module with nitrification/denitrification stages. Parameters analyzed were: COD, BOD, TSS, TKN, TN and TP. The operational parameters studied include flux, solids and hydraulic retention times and recirculation ratios. To assist with water reuse, the investigation looked at post-MBR treatment methods that included activated carbon and UV disinfection. Wastewater was taken from two industrial partners processing a variety of fruit and vegetable produce, which was characterized by relatively high amounts of organics and nutrients. The MBR had excellent removal efficiency at 97% COD, 99% BOD, 99.9% TSS, 90% TKN, and 60% TP for both industrial partners, effectively eliminating the surcharges. A cost and feasibility assessment was completed using bio-kinetic and stoichiometric relationships in combination with experimental data. The analysis showed that even though a MBR system is a significant investment, it can be a viable option for meeting current and future discharge guidelines. Investigation into water reuse showed that activated carbon was effective in removing colour and organic fractions in the wastewater, while UV was able to achieve a 5 log reduction in bacteriophage. Combining these systems with a MBR in the fruit and vegetable industry show the potential for water reuse.

Jose S. Torrecilla

Professor, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

Title: Quality control of extra virgin olive oil by processing the images of olives

Time : 15:10-15:35

Speaker
Biography:

José S. Torrecilla is a Professor of the Chemical Engineering Department of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). He received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from UCM in 2000. From all of his main lines of research, it is worth highlighting the modeling of complex systems and the design of chemometric tools used in many fields such as health, chemistry, engineering, and food technology. He has collaborated with numerous universities as well as national and international research facilities. The impact of his research can be measured with the great number of published articles in various prestigious international journals, some books related with his research lines, and a few national and European patents. His importance can also be evaluated through the participation and coordination of a great number of competitive projects inside the American, European, and national frameworks. During the last few years he has given lectures and seminars at distinguished international research centers, being the main coordinator of some them.

Abstract:

The quality control in most producing industries is one of the most crucial points in world trade. This protection is even more important in the food sector, where not only the food quality must be controled, but also the health of their consumers and prevention of any type of adulteration must be ensured. This is why legal regulations are commonly published around the world. This situation is even more important when the goods are characteristic of a country’s idiosyncrasy, like the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Mediterranean countries. Regarding the field of EVOO, a vital component of the Mediterranean diet, many research groups around the world are working on the development of methods to monitor its quality and prevent its loss. These groups are working on developing new equipment, applications, and/or powerful chemometric tools to detect any condition that causes a decrease of EVOO quality. Most of them are working with the oil itself, but here a new way based on the analysis of the olive images by supervised artificial neural network is proposed. The independent variables of the model have been taken from olive photographs to design a fast way to clasify olives according to their quality. The percentage of misclasification of this tool is lower than 5%. These results offer a good tool to protect EVOO quality, as success in this regard would be compelling for the EVOO producers, as better olives are directly related to the production of higher-quality extra virgin olive oils.

Alexander V. Sirotkin

Professor, Constantine the Philosopher University, Slovakia

Title: Food plants and plant molecules can affect ovarian functions

Time : 15:35-16:00

Speaker
Biography:

Alexander Sirotkin, PhD, DrSc is working as Professor at the Constantine the Philosopher University, as a Research Scientist at Research Institute of Animal Production in Nitra and as a Visiting Professor at the King Saud University in Ryiadh. He has about 600 publications including 120 full papers in the international journals. He is a member of editorial boards of 4 international journals and a recipient of more than 10 national and international awards.

Abstract:

The aim of our in vitro and in-vivo studies was to examine the potential influence of some medical and food plants and their constituents on ovarian functions. For this purpose, we have study the influence of green tea, rooibos, ginkgo, flaxseed, yukka extracts, as well as of plant molecules resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, daidzein, diosgenin on proliferation, apoptosis, release of hormones and response to gonadotropins of porcine and rabbit ovarian cells as well as on rabbit fecundity. It was observed,that green tea, rooibos, ginkgo, flaxseed, extracts, as well as of resveratrol, curcumin, quercetin, daidzein, diosgeninare able to suppress proliferation, promote apoptosis, to alter the release of steroid hormones and to inhibit the response of cultured ovarian cells to hormonal stimulators FSH and IGF-I. Yukka extractexpressed an opposite effect. Furthermore, feeding of rabbits with yukka increased their fecundity. These observations suggest potential direct inhibitory influence of food and medical plants green tea, rooibos, ginkgo, flaxseed on ovarian functions. The similarity in plant and plant constituents effects suggest that the observed plant effects can be due to presence of curcumin, quercetin, daidzein anddiosgenin. The potential anti-reproductive effect of these plants should be taken into account by their consummation. On the other hand, yukka can be used as a natural stimulator of reproduction and fecundity.

Marzieh Seyhoon, Gelareh Khoshpouri

Professor, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Iran

Title: Investigation of the gamma irradiation on Iranian dates carbohydrates using HPLC technique

Time : 16:45-17:35

Speaker
Biography:

Marzieh Seyhoon has completed her PhD at the age of 39 years from Tehran University in field of food technology. She is a professor assistant and Head of food Irradiation Laboratory of radiation application research school, nuclear science and technology research institute, in Iran. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a juror member of Iranian reputed journals.

Abstract:

Irradiation is considered as one of the most efficient technological processes for the improvement and safety of food products and to extend their shelf- life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation on chemical assessment on 6 varieties (Mazafati, Astamaran, Rabbi, Khassui, Zahidi, and Shahany) of Iranian dates. In this purpose, the date samples were stored at room temperature(25 °C), for 5 months. In this condition, one sample was considered as a control (non-irradiated) and three others were irradiated by gamma irradiation with doses 0.2-0.4, 0.5-1.0 and 1.2-2.4 kGy by using 60Co. Every month, the samples kept in each condition were analyzed to detect the chemical (sugar) changes by HPLC and to compare the non-irradiated samples with theirradiated ones.The results from different experiments showed that the total carbohydrates ofthe non-irradiated and irradiated Mazafati and Astamaran samples were increased after 5 months.However, Zahidi, Shahany, Rabbi and Khassuisamples indicateda complete lack of the significant difference in total carbohydrates in various doses and storage time. It was concluded that the proper condition for chemical changes, to increase shelf-life and stabilize quality of the Iranian dates was suggested the dose rangeof 0.5 -1.0 kGy at 25 °C temperature.

Speaker
Biography:

Samira Berenji Ardestani has completed her PhD at the age of 32 years from Tarbiat Modares University in field of food technology. She is a professor assistant of radiation application research school, nuclear science and technology research institute, in Iran. She has published more than 10 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as a juror member of Iranian reputed journals.

Abstract:

Owing to a combination of medicinal and nutritional values (functional food); barberry plants are of interest to researchers. Barberry is a valuable native Iranian plant which is cultivated as abi and poloei varieties (Berberis integerrima - B. vulgaris). Amounts of ash (1.0671- 0.7363%), fat (2.9674 - 0.6173%), fiber (12.1059 - 2.6222%), protein (0.5043 - 0.1200%), reducing sugars (8.8426 - 6.6671%), total sugar (13.8573 - 9.4827%) and pH (3.160 -3.060) were higher in integerrima whereas moisture content (56.27 - 75.01%), Brix (11.1666 - 17.3333) and colour indexes (L*: 16.8500 - 20.8200, a*: 5.6866 - 34.8400 and b*: -1.0066 - 18.9066) were higher in vulgaris. The amounts of P, Zn, Fe, Na and K (ICP technique) in vulgaris were significantly higher than those of integerrima (whole and seedless fruits) and the highest amounts of Mn, Mg, and Cu, Ca were recorded in whole and seedless fruits of integerrima, respectively. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents were 8530 and 183.51 mg in 100 g fresh fruits of B. integerrima (as major anthocyanin delphinidin-3-glucoside equivalent), 3450 and 14.8 mg in 100 g fresh fruits of B. vulgaris (as major anthocyanin pelargonidin-3-glucoside equivalent), respectively.