Day 2 :
Technological Educational Institutions (T.E.I.)
Keynote: Assessment of biological activity of Chios mastic gum (acid, neutral and total fraction) extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes
Time : 10:35-11:05
John Tsaknis has completed his Ph.D. and Postdoctoral studies from Lincolnshire University, School of Food Sciences and is a chartered chemist from the Royal Society of Chemistry, UK. He is full professor in the School of Food Technology and Nutrition in Athens Greece. He is a member of the Standing Committee “Residues and Chemical Contaminants” in the International Dairy Federation (IDF) and Reviewer of 7 international scientific journals. He has published more than 40 papers in reputed journals and participated in more than 30 international conferences and has been serving as an editorial board member of repute.
Chios mastic gum, the resin obtained as an exudate from the trunk and branches of Pistacialentiscus L var. chia, has found extensive use in pharmaceutical products and as a nutritional supplement . A total mastic extract without polymer was prepared after removal of the contained insoluble polymer of poly-β-myrcene in order to ameliorate solubility and enhance in vivo activity. To overcome the drawbacks of mastic gum extracts (acidic and a neutral fraction), the selection of a suitable carrier is crucial. Ethanol injection method  was used for the preparation of liposomes consisting of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol.Two different malignant cell lines (Hep G2 and MCF7) were used.Cell viability was estimated. Morphologic studies were also performed. Our results reveal that liposomes cause a dose and time-dependent inhibition of survival inmalignant cell lines studied. Microscopy studies reveal that morphologic changes were initiated inHep G2 and MCF7 cells after incubation with liposomes.
- Track 2: Food Safety, Food Security, Food Preservation, Quality Standard and Food Systems Management
Track 7: Food, Beverage Marketing & Policy
Track 8: Beverage Quality Analysis And Effect
Track 9: Food Law
Federal University of Rio Grande doSul
Title: A preliminary study of the effect of Rubus sp. extracts on the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex in rats
Time : 11:30-11:55
Maria Rosana Ramirez received her M Sc in Biological Sciences: Biochemistry and PhD in Pharmaceutical Sciences from the University of Rio Grande do Sul, PoA, Brazil. She did a Postdoctoral work in the same University, studying the biological activities of naturals extracts. Currently, she is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Nutrigenomics and Adjoint Investigator of the Argentinean Council of Investigation (CONICET-CITER-UNER). Additionally, she serves as Professor in the Department of Food Scienceat the National University of Entre Rios, Argentine. Her main research interest is the role of nutrients in health and disease, in particular its effects at the cellular and molecular level.
Research has shown that fruit consumption help lower the risk of neurological disease, ischemic stroke, diabetes, cancers and metabolic syndrome. With growing concerns regarding health and growing markets of functional food worldwide, some specialty Rubus sp. cultivars are being developed in Brazil. This way considering the relevance of the biochemical and pharmacological activities showed by these fruits, our objective was to conduct the evaluation of chronic treatment with these extracts on the excitatory and inhibitory amino acids levels in hippocampus and cortex in rodents. Identification and quantitation of each compound was based on retention time and UV spectra in HPLC-DAD. For cyanidin3 glucoside extraction, the extracts were separated on an analytical C-18 column (MPLC). After the treatment the animals were sacrificed by decapitation (3.2 mg/kg/day/oral/30 days). Hippocampus and cortex were dissected and analyzed according to the methodology previously described. We found that, animals submitted to the treatment with total extract presented an increase of glutamate levels. However significant decrease on the glutamate levels was observed in both structures of animals treated with cyanidin3 glucoside isolated. The results suggest that both extracts presents effects on the central nervous system, since the treatment caused alterations on the amino acids levels in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Based on these results, the evaluation of phyto compounds from blackberry may provide useful information for food processing because of their potential to serve as nutraceutical and/or functional applications.
Buenos Aires University
Title: Combined use of Pulsed light (PL) and High Intensity Ultrasound (US) technologies to preserve apple juice: Study of microbial inactivation and induced damage
Time : 11:55-12:20
Sandra N Guerrero obtained her PhD in Chemistry at Buenos Aires University (UBA), Argentina in 1993. She is permanent Professor of Food Engineering and Food Science in the Industry Department of Natural and Exact Sciences School at the same University Professor Guerrerom, she is also Head Investigator in the Research Laboratory of Emerging Technologies in the same Department. She serves as an Independent Researcher of the Argentine Council for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET). Her research is concerned with innovative preservation technologies applied to fruit and dairy products in the hurdle technology context. She has recently received the Certified Food Scientist (CFS) credential given by the International Food Science Certification Commission (IFSCC). She is the Coauthor of 1 book edited by FAO and has published over 190 communications in scientific events and 50 peer-reviewed papers and 16 chapters in journals and books edited by reputed international editorials.
The application of non-thermal emerging preservation technologies in the food industry has received increasing attention as traditional thermal processing may have undesirable effects over fruit juices. PL is actually limited to treatments of transparent liquid foods or surfaces, though it can be combined with other hurdles to increase its effectiveness. This study was aimed to evaluate the single and combined effects of static PL (Xenon lamp; 3 pulses/s; 10 cm; 71.6 J/cm2; 44-56 °C) and US (600 W, 20 kHz, 95.2 µm; 10-30 min; 44 °C) applied to commercial (CAJ, pH:3.5; 12.5°Brix) and natural (NAJ, pH:3.4; 12.6°Brix) apple juices. When some indicator microorganisms were inoculated, US+PL led up to 5.8-6.4 log reductions in NAJ and CAJ respectively, whilst single PL provoked only 2-3 log reductions. Induced damage was evaluated by detecting through flow cytometry, membrane integrity and esterase activity on inoculated and labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae KE162 cells. Cells shown permeabilized membrane when 10 min-US+PL, 30 min-US and 30 min-US+PL was applied (91.6-99.0%). Sub-lethal damage was observed after exposure to single PL in NAJ as ~18% of cells were double stained. Additionally, damage of US+PL treated S. cerevisiae cells and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris ATCC49025 spores was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Treated yeast cells revealed altered or destroyed plasma membrane and cell wall with coagulated inner content while treated A. acidoterrestris spores exhibited induced coagulation of inner content with no possibility of distinguish any structure. This study contributed to a better understanding on the microbial damage caused by PL combined with US treatment applied to apple juice.
Pei Chen is a research chemist in food composition and methods development lab at USDA, USA.
Flavonoids and phenolic acids are the most common and widely distributed of the plant secondary metabolites. Quantitation of these compounds is very challenging primarily due to the tremendous variety of phenolic compounds (some estimates are as high as 8000 different structures for flavonoids) and lack of standards (less than 3% are available commercially). Even with the availability of standards, maintaining an appropriate collection in any laboratory would be a logistical and financial impossibility. Currently three kinds of methods are generally used for flavonoids quantitation: 1. Wet chemistry and spectrometric methods; 2. HPLC with UV or mass spectrometry detectors total flavanoids: Measure aglycones hydrolyzed from flavonoids and 3. HPLC with UV or mass spectrometry detectors for individual flavanoids: Limited to the availability of the reference standards. None of the three methods are adequate for quantification of total flavonoids in foods. The Food Composition and Method Development Laboratory of USA have developed a revolutionary approach for flavonoids profiling and quantitation in foods. First, profiling of the flavonoids in foods is performed, then the flavonoids existed are categorized into the following groups: Flavonol 3-O- or 3,7-O-Glycosides, Hydroxy cinnamic Acid Derivatives and Flavones can be quantified at λ max 354 nm using one single standard, such as rutin, Benzoic Acids and Hydrolyzable Tannins can be quantified at λ max 260 nm using one single standard, such as gallic acid, Catechin and Derivatives (Flavanols, Catechins, and Proanthocyanidins) can be quantified at λ max 278 nm using one single standard such as catechin or epicatechin, Isoflavones can be quantified at λ max 260 nm using one single standard such as genistein or genistin, Flavanoids can be quantified at λ max 260 nm using one single standard, such as hesperitin, Flavvolnol Aglycones and 7-O, e-O, and 8-O glycosides can be quantified at λ max 260 nm using one single standard, such as quercertin. The methods can provide both the profile and quantification information. It is the most comprehensive analytical method for flavonoids determination available.
Islamic Azad University
Title: Improvement of the water solubility, oxidative stability and antioxidant effect of conjugated linoleic acid using Lysine
Time : 13:20-13:45
Dr. Sara is now the department head and assistant professor in the Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Azad University and she has the experience of doing research & teaching for almost 9 years. She is enthusiastic about any collaboration in Food Technology, Food Engineering and she is looking for post doctoral position in the field of Fats and Oils as well as QA, HACCP, and Food Security Challenge.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reported to be a functional fatty acid. The water insolubility and oxidative instability of commercial CLA have limited the applications of CLA. Aim of this research was to produce an oxidative stable hydrophilic CLA by attachment of Lysine (Lys), a polar amino acid, into CLA structure. Formation of Lys-CLA was confirmed by FT-IR at 1650 and 1550 cm-1. The highest water solubility was at pH 2, Lys-CLA of ≤ 1.75% with no added salt (two weeks at 25 ± 1 °C). Peroxide value (PV) was increased by approximately 16-fold (12 h at 60 ºC) for CLA; however, the PV of Lys-CLA was increased by only 1.4-fold, showing that oxidative stability of Lys-CLA has been improved compared with CLA alone. Antioxidant activities of Lys-CLA, CLA and Lys were evaluated using ABTS and DPPH assays. All samples displayed radical scavenging activities in both assays. Lys-CLA with the smallest half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) showed the maximum antioxidant activity among the rest (p < 0.05). The antioxidant activity of Lys-CLA found to be synergistic in DPPH. This study showed that incorporation of Lys into the CLA molecule can improve the oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and water miscibility of CLA.
SEEED (Sustainable Energy Environmental and Educational Development)
Etetor R. Eshiet is a faculty of Sustainable Energy Environmental and Educational Development in USA.
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in disease therapy has increased exponentially in recent years. Herbal plant decoctions, an integral component of CAM, are a veritable source of alternative medicine. Treatment using herbal extracts constitutes a tremendous resource for alternative remedy especially at disease onset. A scientific investigation of traditional herbal plants may provide valuable leads for the development of alternative drugs and therapeutic remedies. The dearth of valid ethnobotanical information on herbal plants used in disease therapy remains an impediment to the utilization of CAM by clinicians. Factors such as improper identification and standardization of these herbal plants constitute a potential reason for concern. Consequently, it is imperative that studies are undertaken to assure the quality, efficacy, and safety of these plants. Our plant of interest, Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae), one of the more popular herbal plants consumed in Central America, Mexico, and the southwestern parts of the U.S.A. for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, is believed to possess hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative properties. Unfortunately, little is known about its chemical composition. This study investigates the lyophilized extracts of B. cavanillesii in an attempt to elucidate its use as a therapeutic agent; chromatographic methods were utilized to analyze the methanolic extract of lyophilized Brickellia cavanillesii. The identified compounds were found to be the primary constituents of the essential oils of many plants and flowers. Essential oils are employed widely in traditional disease remedies.