Day 2 :
- Special Session on Nutritional quality of dried vegetables and vegetable soups
Christian Grün received an MSc in Chemistry and a PhD in Bio-organic Chemistry from Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Before joining Unilever R&D in 2006, he worked as a post-doctorate researcher in the area of Immunology at the Free University Medical Center in Amsterdam studying host-pathogen interactions. Since joining Unilever R&D, he has built a profound understanding in identifying and quantifying phytochemicals in complex (food) matrices as well as studying the metabolism and kinetics of nutrients in the human body.
Dehydration of food has been used for centuries as a technique to increase shelf life and preserve nutrient quality during storage. However, degradation or loss of nutrients may occur during the drying process, either due to applied heat or leaching due to water removal.
Therefore, we investigated nutrient retention during pre-processing and drying of vegetables used to prepare dry vegetable soups in 2 studies. First, nutrient levels were determined in fresh industrial tomato, onion, and lentil produces, as well as in the industrially dried products obtained from the same batches. Vitamin C and lycopene were selected as representatives for heat- and storage-labile nutrients in tomato. For onion, vitamin C and flavonols were taken, whereas folates were chosen as nutrient markers for lentils. Potassium contents were determined for all vegetables. Second, the overall nutritional quality of dry vegetable soups was assessed and compared with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and nutrition databases. Nutrients, including dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins, and carotenoids were determined in ten commercial dry vegetable soup varieties.
During the pre-processing and dehydration of tomato, lycopene remained stable, whereas 70% of vitamin C was retained. With regard to onions, 29% of vitamin C and 51% of flavonols were retained. Losses of folates during processing of lentils was between 10-25%, depending on the process applied. Potassium levels remained largely unaltered for all vegetables, indicating limited losses attributable to leaching. The nutritional profile of dry vegetable soups aligned well with nutritional databases and the profile of nutrient contribution from dry soups was consistent with the expected RDAs contribution from vegetables.
A notable amount of nutrients were retained in vegetables after pre-processing and dehydrating and dry vegetable soups can therefore be considered a relevant source of vegetables and nutrients.
- Workshop on Effect of the incorporation of dried grape marc into wheat flour
University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Voltaire Sant’Anna is graduated in food engineering (Brazil) and is PhD in Chemical Engineering (Brazil) and has experience on food science and technology. Dr. Sant’Anna has worked with food engineering focusing on kinetics of thermal inactivation and reutilization of industrial food residues.
Luis Fernando Schrötter da Silva is graduated in Food Science and technology and presents scientific publications on utilization of food industry residue for agricultural applications.
The development of a wheat flour added of dried grape marc may be a major breakthrough for the farinaceous industry, whereas bakery products are an interesting alternative for incorporation of new ingredients. The objective is to evaluate the effect of addition of grape marc powder to conventional wheat flour on the flour characteristics. For this, concentrations of 0.5 and 0.7g/g of grape flour were added to regular flour and evaluated pH, acidity, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of the compounds of formulations. The results show that the addition of dried grape residue to the wheat flour implies on reduction of pH and acidity of the formulation. The concentration of phenolics increased 93% when 0.5g/g of grape marc was added to the formulation and 135% when concentration of 0.7g/g was added. The incorporation of grape flour to wheat flour increased the ABTS scavenging capacity of the product by 29% in comparison to the control sample. The antioxidant activity measured by the reducing power increased 221% with the presence of 0.5g/g of grape marc and 473% with the presence of 0.7g/g. For the iron chelating activity, the addition of 0.5g/g of the grape dried residue was increased 26% and 29% with the presence of 0.7g/g of the dried residue. The wheat flour showed no DPPH scavenging capacity, while the formulation with 0.5g/g exhibited ability to scavenge 3.9% of radicals and the formulation with 0.7g/g, 11.8%. Thus, the addition of grape marc powder to wheat flour alters pH and acidity of the flour. However, the incorporation helps to increase the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the new product, indicating that a ready-to-use flour, combining wheat flour and grape marc powder is an interesting innovation to be launched in farinaceous market.
- Oral Session
Talking Rain Beverage Company, USA
Jagriti Sharma has a diverse research background comprising of work with adsorbents to mitigate water pollutants; understanding pesticide dissipation in food matrices; mycotoxin chemistry in food; nutrient and anti nutrient bioavailability in food products and most recently, understanding beverage development.
The paper presented is part of her doctoral work conducted at Indian Institute of technology – Delhi and Katholieke Universitiat Leuven, Belgium. The work aspires to answer critical questions on availability of different nutrients in food as effected by processing methods. It also focuses on lesser understood antinutrients in food. The simplicity of the methods employed makes it viable for the masses in general while reviewing the complexities of nutrient availability.
Good quality food, apart from fulfilling basic need, is the key to sound physical and mental health; thus aiding in the holistic development of a human being. However, presence of inherent anti nutrients limit the bioavailability of nutrients to the body. In the backdrop of some known reports on these aspects, it was of interest to investigate and identify the suitable processing methods that help obtaining food products with enhanced nutrition
Experimental work on commonly known legumes was undertaken that revealed very interesting results. The bioavailability of all the nutrients studied (mineral, vitamins, starch, sugar, proteins, fiber) on processing of legumes showed an increasing trend. Out of all the processing methods selected, viz., atmospheric cooking, pressure cooking, roasting and sprouting, sprouting was found superior method of processing in terms of increased bioavailability of minerals, vitamins, fiber and proteins. Surprisingly, atmospheric cooking, a traditional method was found to increase the availability of soluble sugars with decreased galactose content and increased resistant starch (RS) as compared to pressure cooking. Decrease in galactose is beneficial since it is the building block of some sugars like raffinose, stachyose and verbascose which are implicated in flatulence, while increase in RS helps in the slow availability of sugars in body and may prove a good source to decrease blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. Interestingly, these processing methods were also found effective in reducing the antinutritional content (tannins, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity) of legume seeds making them palatable and digestible thereby, reducing flatulence and other harmful effects of antinutritional factors. Sprouting was found best in reducing phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor activity. The research findings shows us an optimistic path of providing nutritious food from commonly available legumes using simple traditional processing techniques. However, the challenge lies in infusing these concepts in the modern life style and effective education to masses.
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Hathairat Rimkeeree is working as an associate professor at Department of Product Development, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand. She studies Product Development at Massey University, New Zealand. At Kasetsart university, she is responsible in teaching product development and consumer research. Her current research interests are development of food and non-food products from the extract of natural resources.
Nowadays, consumers in the food and beverage market are interested in a trend of healthy lifestyles which has created demand for health oriented products. They have become health conscious. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L) is considered as a ‘Superfruit’ and a food medicine. The principal antioxidant polyphenols in pomegranate juice include the ellagitannins and anthocyanins. Some of these active compounds can be also presented in pomegranate peel. Jelly is the product consumed by consumers of all age groups. The development of jelly as a functional product enriched with active compounds from pomegranate juice and pomegranate could give health benefits to the consumers. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: GNPD was used to gain insights into trends in product positioning as well as flavour and ingredient trends of jelly products. The survey of consumer attitudes and behaviors was undertaken to measure consumer attitudes and expectations toward soft jelly product. The optimum formulation of the jelly product with pomegranate juice was developed. The molecular gastronomy technique of spherification was used to form alginate beads containing pomegranate extract. Findings: Conclusion & Significance: The benefit of the pomegranate jelly in terms of antioxidant property could be increased by adding pomegranate peel extract in the formulation. Adding pomegranate peel extract encapsulated in alginate beads helped increase consumer acceptance toward the product. The overall liking was like very much and the consumer acceptance increased after the consumers were informed of product’s health benefit.
Figure 1: Pomegranate jelly processing method
University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Michele Vitolo is graduated in Pharmacy and PhD in Biochemistry at University of São Paulo (USP), Brazil. He is full Professor at USP’s Pharmacy School and Senior Researcher of CNPq (research interest: enzyme catalysis in membrane reactors).
Caprylins are short chain acylglycerols having emulsifying and antimicrobial properties. They are nonionic surfactants that can be synthesized using lipase as biocatalyst resulting more pure and not degraded lipids. This study aimed to caprylins synthesis by esterification of caprylic acid and glycerol using immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase (Lipozyme RM IM®) as biocatalyst. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: The effects of reaction conditions, i.e., temperature (30oC – 70oC) and molar ratio caprylic acid/glycerol (2:1 – 6:1) were analyzed using a factorial design consisting of two factors, two levels and three central points. Response surface methodology was applied in order to achieve the best combination of temperature and molar ratio. The reaction time was set at 6h and synthesis occurred in a conventional batch reactor under reduced pressure, agitation of 250 rpm and temperature control. The reaction yield was calculated from the amount of free fatty acids by titration method. Caprylins present into the mixture after the reaction were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (flame ion detector; CP Sil 5CB column (length = 10m and diameter = 0.25 mm; filled with phenyl-methylpolysiloxane); flow gas (1mL/min): hydrogen). Findings: The highest reaction yield achieved was 93 %, when the molar ratio caprylic acid/glycerol and temperature were 2:1 and 50oC, respectively. However, the lower yield (6.3%) occurred at molar ratio caprylic acid/glycerol and temperature of 2.58:1 and 64oC, respectively. Conclusion & Significance: Analysis of variance (evaluated through ANOVA statistical method) showed that the applied model was statistically significant, insofar as the observed values have been located very near of the predicted line (Figure1). So, the parameters chosen (substrates molar ratio and temperature) affected strongly the synthesis of caprylins.
Figure 1. Predict (continuous line) versus observed () values related to the statistical model used.
- Young Research Forum
Universite de Lorraine, France
Aya Khanji has her expertise in research and biochemical engineering, especially in dairy products. She has built this model after a year of experience in rheology, fluorescence spectroscopy, ζ potential measurements and small angle X-ray scattering. Her double major in quality control and food sciences allowed her to develop new products and process technologies with the respect of all norms such as HACCP approaches and know-hows. Determination and attention to detail combined with strong analytical and problem solving skills were earned during all her academic and professional career.
Casein micelles are colloidal protein particles responsible for a large proportion of milk technological properties. The manufacture of dairy products (yogurt, fresh cheese, cheese) is based on the aggregation and gelation capacity of casein micelles done under acid and rennet conditions. In this work, the casein micelles are also considered as porous structures that can stabilize and vectorize hydrophobic molecules of interest in an aqueous environment. It has recently been shown that the casein micelles can interact with polyphenols such as curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-cancerous biomolecule.
Theoretical orientation: In this study, the ability of micellar casein (MC) to interact with curcumin was investigated. The influence of presence of the guest molecule on the casein micelles structure and acid gelation ability was reported.
Methodology and findings: Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of curcumin variation and fluorescence quenching of caseins upon binding with curcumin molecules were evidenced. Increasing the temperature from 20 to 35 °C enhanced MC–curcumin interactions as reflected by the increase in the binding constant. From changes in entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy, hydrophobic interactions were proposed as major binding forces. Static fluorescence MC quenching was demonstrated for the MC–curcumin complex during acidification. Small angle X-ray scattering profiles demonstrated that the MC internal structure was unchanged upon curcumin binding. The ζ-potential value of curcumin-doped MC indicated that curcumin did not modify the global charge of MC particles. Acid gelation studied by oscillation rheology and static multiple light scattering at 20 and 35 °C led to a similar behavior for native and curcumin-doped MC suspensions.
Conclusion and significance: For the first time, it was demonstrated that the colloidal and functional properties of MC were unchanged when doped with curcumin during acidification. This conclusion leads to a better understanding on how to produce a biomolecule doped-yogurt.
University of Gottingen, Germany
Meisam Nazari is an M.Sc. student in Sustainable International Agriculture at the Georg-August University of Gottingen, Germany. He has performed some researches in terms of improvement of seed germination by utra-priming method. He has also studied such different subjects as plant-mycorrhizal interactions and biological fertilizers. He has published 5 articles in good ISI journals.
Barley is the main ingredient for malting and brewing in the manufacture of beer. In order to study the effect of sonication on the seed germination percentage and rate as well as the size of barley seed cells, a laboratorial experiment was performed as Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 3 replications. The results indicated that the ultrasonic waves affect the seed germination, the germination rate and the seed cell size significantly (at 0.05). The results of mean comparison tests (LSD, 0.05) showed that the highest germination percentage (100 %), germination rate and cell size (1370.71 micron) is achieved through 15 min exposure to ultrasonic waves. It is concluded that ultrasonic waves enhance the germination percentage and rate of the seeds through weakening the seeds’ cell-wall rigidity resulting in more and faster water absorption by the cells. This leads to enlargement of the cells followed by faster release of α-amylase enzyme which accelerates starch hydrolysis and germination is improved.
Figure 1. The number of germinated seeds during 5 days for the different sonication times and control.
University of Zagreb, Croatia
Monika Vidak graduated agriculture at the University of Zagreb, Croatia, in 2013. In 2015 she enrolled in the PhD programme at the same Faculty and started to work on her PhD thesis in the framework of the project "Genetic basis of bioactive nutrient content in Croatian common bean landraces" carried out at the Department of Seed Science and Technology. Her research interests are plant genetic resources conservation and molecular methods for identification of cultivars and analysis of biodiversity.
Although production of common bean in Croatia is in decline, it is very important grain legume in human consumption because of high nutritional value. The production is based on landraces which are adapted to local environments. The aim of this study was to quantify the protein content on 226 common bean accessions and to investigate the relationship between seed coat color and protein content of landraces as part of the Croatian Science Foundation project "Genetic basis of bioactive nutrient content in Croatian common bean landraces". Seeds of accessions belonging to five most widely used landraces named 'Biser', 'Kukuruzar', 'Puter', 'Trešnjevac' (2 - climbing and 3 - determinate bush) and 'Zelenčec' were assessed. The L*a*b* values were measured in order to describe the seed coat color. Results show that accessions that have higher a* (red – green) and b* (yellow – blue) values tend to have higher crude protein content. Considering that protein content is generally considered as a very important trait to estimate the nutritional quality of common bean seeds, 'Trešnjevac' 2 would be of an interest for breeding purposes due to the highest protein content.
Figure 1. Protein content of Croatian landraces in relation to the different seed coat color
Zhejiang University, China
Xiao-Lan Yu is a PhD candidate in Biosystems Engineering in Zhejiang University, China. Prof. and PhD Yong He is her doctoral supervisor. Prof. and PhD Yong He has his expertise in the rapid acquisition of crop information, precision agriculture, agriculture internet of things, agricultural aviation and so on. Xiao-Lan Yu applies herself to analyze plant materials by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy from qualitative analyses like classification to quantitative analyses at present. She also has understanding and research interests in tea to a certain extent.
The year of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important factors in consideration when customers decide to buy rice and new rice has always been a favorite for customers. This phenomenon gives opportunities to the traffickers who substitute stored rice for new rice to sell in order to gain profit, which is not only illegal, but also deceive consumers and even impair their health if the traffickers add some hazardous substances to make stored rice look like new rice. However, studies aimed at identifying new rice and stored rice are a rare seen. The purpose of this study is to report on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of new rice by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) coupled with chemometrics. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: LIBS spectra between 300nm to 850nm of new rice which was harvested in 2016 and stored rice which was harvested in 2015 but unpacked with the new rice at the same time were got and min-max normalization was the method for preprocessing. According to the X-variables loadings produced by principal component analysis (PCA), characteristic wavelengths were acquired and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models were built on the basis of them. Findings: The results showed that the LDA model based on characteristic wavelengths could identify new rice and stored nice rapidly. The accuracy of the calibration set and the prediction set all reached 100%. Conclusion & Significance: The combination of LIBS and chemometric has its potential to be used in the cereal industry, providing a methodology to perform the quality control of cereal.
Figure 1: LIBS spectra of new rice (2016) and stored rice (2015)