Dr. Julia Steinhoff-Wagner completed her PhD in Animal Science in Kiel, followed by a postdoctoral training in the Nutritional Physiology Unit at the Leibnitz Institute of Animal Biology in 2010 and a second postdoctoral training at the USDA Childrens’ Nutrition Research Center in Houston, Texas, USA. She currently builds up a junior research group at the Animal Science Department at Bonn University.
Pathways of waste milk in Germany were identified by a detailed literature search. Details about the relevance of these pathways are lacking. From 31070 Mio L milk in total, 1 to 4 % is withdrawn from the market. This “waste milk” is divided in categories: 1. Colostrum, 2. Milk with high cell count /microbes, 3. Milk with drug residues. Proportion of colostrum and colostral transition milk can be estimated by number of calving and accounts for 0.1 % and 0.4 % of the total produced milk. Along with existing recommendations colostrum is likely entirely fed to neonatal calves. From the One Health perspective feeding colostrum improves calve’s immune system and reduces drug use. No data are available about amounts of produced milk with high cell count/ microbes or milk with drug residues. By animal protectoral law it is stated that diseases need to be treated immediately, whereby it is likely that the majority of produced milk includes either both disturbances (high cell count/ microbes and milk with drug residues) or none (right before it’s getting marketable again). Last mentioned milk can be fed without any precautions, whereas pasteurization can be used to treat waste milk against microbial transition. With regard to resistances, especially the disposal of waste milk with drug residues should be in the focus of interest. Field reports exist, that the majority is fed to calves and on high quality dairy farms preferred to male calves. These questions are clarified with a survey and available for presentation.
Erhunmwunse Nosakhare Osazee has completed his M.Sc at the University of Benin, Benin City and currently a PhD student of same university. He is 35 years old and currently an Assistant Lecturer in the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Benin. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals.
Considering the recent increase in the consumption of canned fish, which is attributed to a changing lifestyle, there is the need to monitor the presence of contaminants and its attendant risk on humans upon exposure. To this end, Levels of heavy metals in selected readily consumed canned fish obtained from Benin metropololis were determined using BUCK 210 VGP Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Graphite, while human health risk was estimated using standard risk assessment indices. The Ni values ranged from 4.03±0.11to 2.25±0.41, Mn ranged from 7.75 ±0.30 to 3.25 ± 0.10mg/kg, Cd and Pb ranged from 0.06±0.82 to 0.00±0.00mg/kg and 1.87±0.47 to 0.12±0.34mg/kg respectively. Cu 7.75±0.51 to 0.25±0.15 mg/kg, Fe ranged from 16.21±0.50 to 6.21±0.31mg/kg and Zn 9.46±0.42 to 2.02±0.91 mg/kg. Fe, Zn, Cu and Pb were found to be significant (P<0.05) while Mn and Cd were found to be non-significant. Risk estimates show that the estimated daily intakes in the examined samples were below the FAO/WHO Guidelines limits. while, Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) and Hazard Index (HI) were < 1 for all metals considered. The results of this study indicate that no considerable health risk could arise from the consumption of canned fish.